..

:
. : RGB, YCbCr, HSV, CIE Lab. .

Abstract:
Skin detection performance metrics were developed. Popular color spaces comparison was performed with the use of threshold chose as skin color model: RGB, YCbCr, HSV, CIE Lab. 2D color spaces influence on skin detection performance was estimated.

:
, , .

Key words:
skin color, face detection, color space comparison.

:

  1. Hsu, R.-L. Face Detection in Color Images / R.-L. Hsu, M. Abdel-Mottaleb, A. Jain // IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 2002. Vol. 29(5). P. 696-706.
  2. Vezhnevets, V. A survey on pixel-based skin color detection techniques / V. Vezhnevets, V. Sazonov, A. Andreeva // Proc. of International Conference on the Computer Graphics and Vision (GraphiCon2003), September 5-10. Moscow, Russia: Moscow State University Publisher, 2003. P. 85-92.
  3. Phung, S.L. Skin segmentation using color pixel classification: analysis and comparison / S.L. Phung, A. Bouzerdoum, D. Chai // IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 2005. Vol. 27(1). P. 148-154.
  4. Kakumanu, P. A survey of skin-color modeling and detection methods / P. Kakumanu, S. Makrogiannis, N. Bourbakis // Pattern Recognition. 2007. Vol. 40(3). P. 1106-1122.
  5. Tre'meau, A. Color in image and video processing: most recent trends and future research directions / A. Tre'meau, S. Tominaga, K.N. Plataniotis // Journal on Image and Video Processing. 2008. Vol. 2008, Jan. P. 1-26.
  6. Martinkauppi, J. Facial Skin Color Modeling // Handbook of face recognition / S.Z. Li (ed.), Anil K. Jain (ed.) New York: Springer, 2005. Ch. 6. P. 113-135.
  7. Shi, L. Skin Colour Imaging That Is Insensitive to Lighting Conditions / L. Shi, B. Funt // Proc. of AIC (Association Internationale de la Couleur) Conference on Colour Effects & Affects, June 15-18. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Colour Centre Foundation / Scandinavian Colour Institute AB, 2008. - Paper N 102.
  8. Martinkauppi, B. Detection of Skin Color under Changing Illumination: A Comparative Study / B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, M. Pietikainen // Proc. of the 12th International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP'03), September 17-19. Mantova, Italy: IEEE Computer Society, 2003. P. 652-657.
  9. Fleck, M. Finding Naked People / M. Fleck, D. Forsyth, C. Bregler // Proc. of Fourth European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV'96), Volume II, April 14-18. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge, 1996. P. 592-602.
  10. Shin, M.C. Does Colorspace Transformation Make Any Difference on Skin Detection? / M.C. Shin, K.I. Chang, L.V. Tsap // Proc. of 6th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV 2002), December 3-4. Orlando, FL, US: IEEE Computer Society, 2002. - P. 275-279.
  11. Rahman, N.A. RGB-H-CbCr Skin Colour Model for Human Face Detection / N.A. Rahman, K.C. Wei, J. See // Proc. of The MMU International Symposium on Information & Communications Technologies (M2USIC 2006), November 16-17. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Multimedia University, 2006.
  12. Abdallah, S.A. A new color image database for benchmarking of automatic face detection and human skin segmentation techniques / A.S. Abdallah, M.A. El-nasr, A.L. Abbott // World academy of science, engineering and technology. 2007. Vol. 36. P. 38-42.
  13. Girod, B. Face Detection Project [ ]. URL: http://www.stanford.edu/class/ee368/Project_03/project_03.html ( : 10.04.2011).
  14. Sharma, P. A color face image database for benchmarking of automatic face detection algorithms [ ] / P. Sharma. URL: http://dsp.ucd.ie/~prag/DatabaseFinal.pdf ( : 10.04.2011).
  15. Recommendation ITU-R BT.601-5, Studio Encoding Parameters of Digital Television for Standard 4:3 and Wide-screen 16:9 Aspect Ratios. International Telecommunication Union, 1995.
  16. Smith, A.R. Color Gamut Transform Pairs / A.R. Smith. Proc. of the 5th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques (SIGGRAPH '78), August 23-25. Atlanta, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 1978. P. 12-19.
  17. CIE Publ. N 15.2. Recommendations on Uniform Color Spaces, Color Difference Equations, Psychometric Color Terms. Central Bureau of the CIE, 1986.
  18. Chai, D. Face segmentation using skin-color map in videophone applications / D. Chai; K.N. Ngan // IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. 1999. Vol. 9(4). P. 551-564.
  19. Kovac, J. Human skin color clustering for face detection / J. Kovac, P. Peer, F. Solina // Proc. of International Conference on Computer as a Tool (EUROCON 2003), September 22-24. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Ljubljana University, 2003. P. 144-148.
  20. Kruppa, H. Skin Patch Detection in Real-World Images / H. Kruppa, M. Bauer, S. Schiele // In Annual Symposium for Pattern Recognition of the DAGM 2002. 2002. Springer LNCS 2449. P. 109-117.
  21. Jedynak, B. Maximum Entropy Models for Skin Detection / B. Jedynak, H. Zheng, M. Daoudi, D. Barret // Proc. of Third Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing (ICVGIP 2002), December 16-18. Ahmadabad, India: Allied Publishers Private Limited, 2003. P. 276-281.
  22. , .. / .. , .. , ..  // . - 2010. Vol. 34(1). . 109-117.

References:

  1. Hsu, R.-L. Face Detection in Color Images / R.-L. Hsu, M. Abdel-Mottaleb, A. Jain // IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 2002. Vol. 29(5). P. 696-706.
  2. Vezhnevets, V. A survey on pixel-based skin color detection techniques / V. Vezhnevets, V. Sazonov, A. Andreeva // Proc. of International Conference on the Computer Graphics and Vision (GraphiCon2003), September 5-10. Moscow, Russia: Moscow State University Publisher, 2003. P. 85-92.
  3. Phung, S.L. Skin segmentation using color pixel classification: analysis and comparison / S.L. Phung, A. Bouzerdoum, D. Chai // IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 2005. Vol. 27(1). P. 148-154.
  4. Kakumanu, P. A survey of skin-color modeling and detection methods / P. Kakumanu, S. Makrogiannis, N. Bourbakis // Pattern Recognition. 2007. Vol. 40(3). P. 1106-1122.
  5. Tre'meau, A. Color in image and video processing: most recent trends and future research directions / A. Tre'meau, S. Tominaga, K.N. Plataniotis // Journal on Image and Video Processing. 2008. Vol. 2008, Jan. P. 1-26.
  6. Martinkauppi, J. Facial Skin Color Modeling // Handbook of face recognition / S.Z. Li (ed.), Anil K. Jain (ed.) New York: Springer, 2005. Ch. 6. P. 113-135.
  7. Shi, L. Skin Colour Imaging That Is Insensitive to Lighting Conditions / L. Shi, B. Funt // Proc. of AIC (Association Internationale de la Couleur) Conference on Colour Effects & Affects, June 15-18. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Colour Centre Foundation / Scandinavian Colour Institute AB, 2008. Paper N 102.
  8. Martinkauppi, B. Detection of Skin Color under Changing Illumination: A Comparative Study / B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, M. Pietikainen // Proc. of the 12th International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP'03), September 17-19. Mantova, Italy: IEEE Computer Society, 2003. P. 652-657.
  9. Fleck, M. Finding Naked People / M. Fleck, D. Forsyth, C. Bregler // Proc. of Fourth European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV'96), Volume II, April 14-18. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge, 1996. P. 592-602.
  10. Shin, M.C. Does Colorspace Transformation Make Any Difference on Skin Detection? / M.C. Shin, K.I. Chang, L.V. Tsap // Proc. of 6th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV 2002), December 3-4. Orlando, FL, US: IEEE Computer Society, 2002. P. 275-279.
  11. Rahman, N.A. RGB-H-CbCr Skin Colour Model for Human Face Detection / N.A. Rahman, K.C. Wei, J. See. Proc. of The MMU International Symposium on Information & Communications Technologies (M2USIC 2006), November 16-17. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Multimedia University, 2006.
  12. Abdallah, S.A. A new color image database for benchmarking of automatic face detection and human skin segmentation techniques / A.S. Abdallah, M.A. El-nasr, A.L. Abbott // World academy of science, engineering and technology. 2007. Vol. 36. P. 38-42.
  13. Girod, B. Face Detection Project . URL: http://www.stanford.edu/class/ee368/Project_03/project_03.html (viewving date: 10.04.2011).
  14. Sharma, P. A color face image database for benchmarking of automatic face detection algorithms / P. Sharma. URL: http://dsp.ucd.ie/~prag/DatabaseFinal.pdf (viewving date: 10.04.2011).
  15. Recommendation ITU-R BT.601-5, Studio Encoding Parameters of Digital Television for Standard 4:3 and Wide-screen 16:9 Aspect Ratios. International Telecommunication Union, 1995.
  16. Smith, A.R. Color Gamut Transform Pairs / A.R. Smith. Proc. of the 5th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques (SIGGRAPH '78), August 23-25. Atlanta, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 1978. - P. 12-19.
  17. CIE Publ. N 15.2. Recommendations on Uniform Color Spaces, Color Difference Equations, Psychometric Color Terms. Central Bureau of the CIE, 1986.
  18. Chai, D. Face segmentation using skin-color map in videophone applications / D. Chai; K.N. Ngan // IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. 1999. Vol. 9(4). P. 551-564.
  19. Kovac, J. Human skin color clustering for face detection / J. Kovac, P. Peer, F. Solina // Proc. of International Conference on Computer as a Tool (EUROCON 2003), September 22-24. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Ljubljana University, 2003. P. 144-148.
  20. Kruppa, H. Skin Patch Detection in Real-World Images / H. Kruppa, M. Bauer, S. Schiele // In Annual Symposium for Pattern Recognition of the DAGM 2002. 2002. Springer LNCS 2449. P. 109-117.
  21. Jedynak, B. Maximum Entropy Models for Skin Detection / B. Jedynak, H. Zheng, M. Daoudi, D. Barret // Proc. of Third Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing (ICVGIP 2002), December 16-18. Ahmadabad, India: Allied Publishers Private Limited, 2003. P. 276-281.
  22. Sirota, A.A. Two-staged algorithm for detecting and rating the object cutouts on the images in case of additive noise and deformed distortions / A.A. Sirota, A.I. Solomatin, E.V. Voronova // Computer optics. 2010. Vol. 34(1). P. 109-117. (in Russian).

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