A classification of semi-fragile watermarking systems for JPEG images
Egorova A.A., Fedoseev V.A.


IPSI RAS – Branch of the FSRC “Crystallography and Photonics” RAS, Molodogvardeyskaya 151, 443001, Samara, Russia;
Samara National Research University, Moskovskoye shosse, 34, 443086, Samara, Russia


The article discusses semi-fragile digital watermarking systems designed to protect JPEG images against unauthorized changes. These systems allow detecting and locating changes, and some of them are able to restore the original content. Formal schemes describing the procedures for watermark embedding and authentication are given. We consider more than a dozen systems of this type and classify them according to various criteria. We also consider the results of experimental studies of these systems estimating their level of distortions arising from watermark embedding. In addition, we test the systems whether they are able to operate in the semi-fragile way

digital watermarking, image authentication, semi-fragile watermarking, JPEG, QIM, LSB

Egorova AA, Fedoseev VA. A classification of semi-fragile watermarking systems for JPEG images. Computer Optics 2019; 43(3): 419-433. DOI: 10.18287/2412-6179-2019-43-3-419-433.


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